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Semajno 6!
Esperanto ĉe la Universitato de Roĉestro – aŭtuna kurso, 2012
Pasporto al la tuta mondo, leciono kvar (parto 1)
Subject and direct object
Kion manĝas Karlo? —Li manĝas bananon.
What is Karlo eating? —He’s eating a banana.
So far we’ve seen lots of sentences that express what a
subject does or is. For example, here la atleto is the subject:
La atleto kuras en parko.
The athlete runs in a park.
La atleto estas laca.
The athlete is tired.
La atleto ŝvitas.
The athlete is sweating.
Kiun libron legis Jolanda?
Which book did Jolanda read?
Kial and tial
Following the pattern of kio/tio, kie/tie, kiom/tiom and so
on, we have kial (why, for what reason) and tial (therefore,
so, for that reason):
But sometimes we’re concerned not just with what the
subject does, but what it does to something. When we read,
for example, we must read something; and when we eat, we
must eat… something. This “something” is called the direct
object, and in Esperanto we add -n to distinguish it from the
subject:
Kial li manĝis la pomon?
Why did he eat the apple?
Subject
Verb
Direct object
Mi pensas, tial mi ekzistas.
la viro
manĝas
pomon
I think, therefore I exist.
the man
eats
an apple
Note: don’t confuse tial (therefore) with ĉar (because).
Looking at this sentence, we know what does the eating (la
viro), and we know what is eaten (pomo, because it has
the -n). The -n allows us to re-arrange the order of the
sentence without changing its meaning: la viro is still the
object, and pomon is still the subject, no matter where they
appear in the sentence:
Mi manĝos, ĉar mi estas malsata.
I will eat because I am hungry.
Mi manĝis, tial mi ne estas malsata nun.
I ate, therefore I am not hungry now.
La viro pomon manĝas. The man eats an apple.
Pomon manĝas la viro.
The man eats an apple.
Manĝas la viro pomon.
The man eats an apple.
The correlatives (tabelvortoj)
In English we have a set of words to express related ideas
like “where”, “there”, “somewhere”, etc.. They follow a
semi-regular pattern:
…etc.
The -n can also be added to pronouns:
La viro manĝis ĝin.
The man ate it.
and to plurals:
Flora havas du kolĉenojn.
Flora has two necklaces.
Ŝi vendos ilin.
She will sell them.
Remember how adjectives “agree” with their nouns by
taking the plural ending -j? (e.g. “ruĝaj pomoj”?) In the
same way, adjectives take the ending -n along with their
nouns:
where
there
somewhere
which
one
that one someone
no one
everyone
when
then
never
always
how
that way somehow
no way
every way
why
that
reason
sometime
nowhere everywhere
some reason no
reason
every
reason
…and so on.
La greka filozofo trinkas mineralan akvon.
The Greek philosopher drinks mineral water.