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P O R C E L A I N / C E R A M I C T E S T R E S U LT S
Evaluating the Static Coefficient of
Friction (COF) of Ceramic Tile, ASTM C1028-06
COF* defines the relative slip resistance of floor surfaces. The tile
industry uses ASTM C1028-06 to measure the COF published in
Dal-Tile’s product literature. The procedure involves the use of a
calibrated dynamometer, a specified neolite heel assembly, a standard
reference tile surface, and a 50 pound weight. This procedure measures
the maximum force required to initiate motion in the testing assembly
in four perpendicular directions. The values are recorded and an
averaging calculation is performed that determines the static COF.
Water Absorption, ASTM C373-88
Water absorption is measured using ASTM C373-88. Individual tiles
are weighed, saturated with water, then weighed again. The percent
difference between the two conditions is referred to as the water
absorption value. Tiles are classified according to water absorption
percentages as follows:
Tiles exhibiting 0.5% or less.
Vitreous Tiles exhibiting more than 0.5%
but not more than 3.0%.
Semi-Vitreous Tiles exhibiting more than 3.0%
but not more than 7.0%.
Non-Vitreous Tiles exhibiting more than 7.0%.
Scratch Hardness (MOH’s Scale Ratings)
The relative hardness of glazed tile is an important issue that should be
addressed when selecting a tile. The test is performed by scratching
the surface of the tile with different minerals and subjectively assigning a
“MOH’s Scale Hardness” number to the glaze, the softest mineral used
is talc (“1” rating), the hardest is a diamond (“10” rating). Other minerals
of varying hardness provide Moh’s Scale Hardness values of 5 to 7 are
suitable for most residential floor applications. A value of 7 or greater
is normally recommended for commercial applications.
Breaking Strength Ceramic Tile, ASTM C648-04
Ceramic tiles used on floors and walls must be able to withstand the
expected load bearing capacity of various installations. The tile industry
uses ASTM C648-04 to determine the strength and durability of the
tile. A force is applied to an unsupported portion of the tile specimen
until breakage occurs. The ultimate breaking strength is then recorded
in pounds. Final selection of the tile should be based upon the breaking
strength and the appropriate installation method. Tile integrity is critically
dependent upon proper installation. Dal-Tile recommends strict
adherence to industry installation guidelines set forth in ANSI A108,
A118 and A136.
Chemical Resistance, ASTM C650-04
Chemical resistance is measured using ASTM C650-04. A tile sample is
placed in continuous contact with a variety of chemicals for 24 hours,
rinsing the surface and then examining the surface for visible variation.
Shade Variations
Tiles range from complete inconsistency to a more random appearance.
Here’s an overview of color and shading of individual tile selections.
Monochromatic (V0) - Very uniform, monochromatic color
Low (V1) - Consistent color within each tile and from tile to tile
Medium (V2) - Color variation within each tile
High (V3) - Some variation from tile to tile, and within each tile
Random (V4) - Considerable variation from tile to tile
Abrasion Resistance, ASTM C1027-99
The durability of glazed tile is measured, subjectively, by observing
the visible surface abrasion of the tile when subjected to the ASTM C
1027-99 testing procedure. Dal-Tile evaluates glazed tile recommended
for floor applications using this test method which includes the following
classification system:
Class Zero
Not recommended for use on floors.
Class One
(Light Residential)
Light Traffic - Residential floor coverings in areas
subject to soft-soled footwear or normal footwear
traffic, without scratching dirt (i.e. domestic
bathrooms and bedrooms without exterior access).
Class Two
Medium to Light Traffic - Residential floor coverings
in areas subject to soft-soled footwear or normal
footwear traffic with small amounts of scratching
dirt (i.e. rooms in the living areas of homes except
kitchens, entrances and other areas that may be
subjected to high usage).
Class Three
Medium to Heavy Traffic - Residential or light
(Heavy Residential
commercial may withstand normal footwear and
or Light Commercial) regular traffic, with some dirt and/or other abrasives
present in limited quantities.Tile in this class may be
used in light commercial installations with limited
foot traffic and with no direct access to the outside.
Examples may include residential kitchens and
hallways with limited traffic from the outside.
Class Four
Heavy Traffic - Residential and commercial floor
coverings subjected to considerable traffic and
scratching dirt (i.e. entrances, workrooms, inns,