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ACI 309R-96
Guide for Consolidation of Concrete
Reported by ACI Committee 309
H. Celik Ozyildirim
Richard E. Miller, Jr.
Subcommittee Chairman
Dan A. Bonikowsky
Roger A. Minnich
Neil A. Cumming
Mikael P. J. Olsen
Timothy P. Dolen
Larry D. Olson
Jerome H. Ford
Sandor Popovics
Steven H. Gebler
Steven A. Ragan
Kenneth C. Hover
Donald L. Schlegel
Gary R. Mass
Bradley K. Violetta
Bryant Mather
Consolidation is the process of removing entrapped air from freshly placed
concrete. Several methods and techniques are available, the choice
depending mainly on the workability of the mixture, placing conditions,
and degree of air removal desired. Some form of vibration is usually
This guide includes information on the mechanism of consolidation, and
gives recommendations on equipment, characteristics, and procedures for
various classes of construction.
Keywords: admixtures; air; air entrainment; amplitude; centrifugal force;
concrete blocks; concrete construction; concrete pavements; concrete
pipes; concrete products; concrete slabs; concretes; consistency; consolidation; floors; formwork (construction); heavyweight concretes; inspection;
lightweight aggregate concretes; maintenance; mass concrete; mixture proportioning; placing; plasticizers; precast concrete; quality control; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; segregation; surface defects; tamping;
vacuum-dewatered concrete; vibration; vibrators (machinery); waterreducing admixtures; workability.
Chapter 1—General, p. 309R-2
Chapter 2—Effect of mixture properties on
consolidation, p. 309R-3
2.1—Mixture proportions
ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Commentaries
are intended for guidance in planning, designing, executing, and inspecting
construction. This document is intended for the use of individuals
who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its
content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for
the application of the material it contains. The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and all responsibility for the stated principles. The Institute shall not be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom.
Reference to this document shall not be made in contract documents. If
items found in this document are desired by the Architect/Engineer to be
a part of the contract documents, they shall be restated in mandatory language for incorporation by the Architect/Engineer.
2.2—Workability and consistency
2.3—Workability requirements
Chapter 3—Methods of consolidation, p. 309R-4
3.1—Manual methods
3.2—Mechanical methods
3.3—Methods used in combinations
Chapter 4—Consolidation of concrete by vibration,
p. 309R-5
4.1—Vibratory motion
4.2—Process of consolidation
Chapter 5—Equipment for vibration, p. 309R-7
5.1—Internal vibrators
5.2—Form vibrators
5.3—Vibrating tables
5.4—Surface vibrators
5.5—Vibrator maintenance
Chapter 6—Forms, p. 309R-14
6.2—Sloping surfaces
6.3—Surface defects
6.4—Form tightness
6.5—Forms for external vibration
ACI 309R-96 became effective May 24, 1996. This report supersedes ACI 309R-87.
Copyright © 1997, American Concrete Institute.
All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any
means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or
mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in
writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.
In addition to the members of ACI Committee 309, the following individuals contributed significantly to the development of this report: George R. U. Burg, Lars Forssblad, John C. King, Kenneth L. Saucier, and C. H. Spitler. Their contribution is
sincerely appreciated.
Chapter 7—Recommended vibration practices for
general construction, p. 309R-16
7.1—Procedure for internal vibration
7.2—Judging the adequacy of internal vibration
7.3—Vibration of reinforcement
7.5—Form vibration
7.6—Consequences of improper vibration
Chapter 16—Consolidation of test specimens, p.
16.1—Strength tests
16.2—Unit weight tests
16.3—Air content tests
16.4—Consolidating very stiff concrete in laboratory
Chapter 8—Structural concrete, p. 309R-21
8.1—Design and detailing prerequisites
8.2—Mixture requirements